Different types of li-ion batteries make use of different types of cathodes. The cathodes are made of lithium molecules. Generally, the anodes are made of carbon. As with other types of batteries, the chemical reaction that happen between the cathode, anode and the electrolyte generate electric current. Aside from this, the stuff used for these will affect the cost, capacity, performance and the safety of a certain type of battery.
Li-ion batteries, for instance, that feature a lithium cobalt oxide cathode can give you a bit higher capacity. However, they are more reactive because of the lower thermal capacities. Another great option is the lithium iron phosphate. Their life cycle is 4-5 times longer. Moreover, their power density is around 10 times better.
These batteries are of various classes, but they are commonly used in portable or consumer devices like smartphones and laptops. Aside from this, this type of battery is also popular for use in aerospace, military and other electric automobiles.
Given below are some pros and cons of lithium ion batteries.
- Lighter and smaller: These batteries are lightweight but offer higher capacity than other types of products out there. Therefore, it is commonly used in portable devices where the physical specs like form factor and weight are on the list of important considerations.
- Energy Density: Lion batteries feature higher density of energy than other types, which means you can enjoy higher capacity irrespective of the size. That is why these batteries are an ideal choice for power-hungry devices like smartphones and laptops. With the advancements in technology, we will have higher capacities down the road.
- Self-discharge: Another great characteristic of a Li-ion battery is that it has only 1.5% self-discharge rate per month, which means that it offers longer-shelf life. The reason is that its discharge rate is lower than most of other rechargeable batteries. Here it’s important to note that the self-discharge rate of a nickel-metal hydride is 20% per month.
- Fast charging: This type of battery recharges quickly. Usually, it takes a lot less time to recharge than other types on the market.
- Open-circuit voltage: Li-ion batteries offer high open-circuit voltage compared to other batteries like nickel-metal hydride, lead acid and so on.
- Lifespan: These batteries last longer than other batteries. Even after hundreds of recharging cycles, it will retain its capacity. For instance, some batteries of this type loss only 30% of their capacity even after 1000 cycles.