To make the cables you need to have the necessary raw materials. For example, you need to have plastic or glass. You also need to have the cable making machine. To make the cable you should start by heating your raw materials (glass or plastic) at ultra high temperatures and then draw fibers at very high speeds (66 feet per second).
When drawing out the fibers you should monitor them using mirometer. This is to ensure that the diameter is uniform from the start to finish.
For the fibers to transmit data over long distances you need to ensure that they are highly reflective. You can easily do this by creating a mirror effect within the fiber. You do this by passing the fibers through ultraviolet ovens and coating cups.
Once you have your reflective fiber with you, you should subject it to a number of tests to ensure that it’s in perfect condition. Some of the tests that you should subject it to include: refractive index profile, tensile strength, bandwidth, fiber geometry, attenuation, temperature dependence, operating temperature, and ability to conduct light underwater.
It’s only after the fibers have passed these tests should you package ensemble them in a cable. You can make a cable with one fiber strand or with a number of strands. It all depends on the application.
To assemble the cable you need to surround the fibers with a loose tube of PVC. This is to ensure that there is enough room for the cable to bend when being routed around corners.
You should then cover the loose PVC with a layer of aramid yarn. The main function of the layer is to absorb shock. Finally, you should seal out moisture by installing an outer PVC jacket.
For the optic cable to transmit data you need to connect it to optical transmitter and receiver. The transmitter converts analog and electrical signals into linear modulating light signals.
The optical receiver on the other hand accepts the light signal and reformats the data into the original form.